Conference Agenda

MAST Med 2022 Grand Hyatt, Central Athens, Greece

Thu 3 Nov 2022

14:00 Thu 3 Nov 2022


4C: Undersea

Undersea Operational Challeng es

CNR-INM's R&D Activities on (and below) the Waters of Lake Nemi

  • Dr Salvatore Mauro
    Scientist researcher
    National Research Council (CNR) - INSEAN

The CNR-INM Outdoor Maneuvring and Low Underwater Background Noise test bed located at the shore of the fresh water volcanic lake of Nemi is a location where a number of R&D activities are carried out. In a while, an olistic multi-sensor underwater survey (multibeam & sub-bottom profiler) will provide the complete georeferenced underwater 3D of the bottom of the lake. The area is particularly vocated to be in perspective a MASS test area where unmanned technological ecosystems (both surface and underwater) could be tested and verified also for dual use operative solutions.

Submarine Cables: Another Hybrid Threat Added to the Toolkit of Malicious Actors?

  • Mr. Stavros Piperidis
    University of Macedonia

The protection of critical infrastructure is at the core of national security, but it is usually forgotten in public discourse. This paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of protecting submarine cables and provide an overview of their importance, vulnerabilities, and other elements to consider. Submarine cables are part of the critical infrastructure on which telecommunications and markets depend. They are also characterized as "global super-highways" of information since 95% of data is transferred at the speed of light. This paper will mainly focus on the cables laid in the Mediterranean region and the Suez Canal, while also taking into consideration the increased antagonism in the Pacific Ocean and between the United States and China. The ownership of submarine cables is mostly attributed to private companies, which are also responsible for their maintenance and repair. A crisis can occur at any given time in various forms, such as a physical strike, cyber attack, or wiretapping. Cables may be physically hit by fishing and commercial activities as well as natural disasters. Malicious threats can arise from state-owned research ships equipped with cable strike devices. Lastly, data/information interception may be achieved during the construction process of cables, during their mooring at landing stations, or during hostile operations at sea. Therefore, it is recommended that the responsible government entities review their strategy and preparedness for combating such possibilities; conduct further consultations with stakeholders to assure the highest standards of the cables' safety, and invest in capabilities that will allow state intervention whenever necessary.

Implications of the New American Hi-Lo Mix

  • Dr/CAPT Jerry Hendrix
    Senior Fellow
    Sagamore Institute
    United States

I propose a paper under topic 1 that will look at the implications of current US Navy investments in a hi-lo mix comprised of missile laden submarines, in the form of Virginia-class Block V submarines loaded out with Tomahawk and hypersonic Conventional Prompt missiles, and Constellation-class frigates, based upon the European FREMM design loaded out with its own array of standard, anti-submarine, and anti-ship missiles. This paper would examine the role of strengthening the Atlantic as American frigates return to traditional missions of practicing ASW, convoy escort and working with partners and allies while new, advanced submarines continue to exploit American and allied dominance of the undersea environment to hold enemy targets at risk with the potential of advanced undersea strike. More broadly this paper will explore how, in the face of anti-access/area denial technologies, the trend of American naval strategy is moving away from the carrier strike groups that have dominated its force structure planning over the past seven decades towards a new paradigm that places more emphasis on submarines in wartime and lower cost frigates for forward presence for operations other than war. It is hope that this paper will make recommendations regarding how America’s allies and partners can shift their own investments to meet American force planners “in the merge” twenty years hence.

Increased Submarine Production and Maintenance Throughput via Intelligent Scheduling

  • Dr. Robert Richards
    Project Manager
    Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
    United States

Submarine production has benefited significantly from more intelligently allocating resources and managing other constraints, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing overall project duration. Intelligent scheduling is being leveraged by General Dynamics Electric Boat (EB) for the scheduling of various aspects of submarine construction, to increase the speed of production. Scheduling is an NP-complete problem, that is the size of the solution space grows exponential as the size of the project grows linearly and therefore problems of any reasonable size cannot be solved simply mathematically. Unfortunately, most commercial project management software does not benefit from intelligent scheduling technology. Most ‘solutions’ such as resource leveling greatly simplify the problem and thus result in far suboptimal results. Intelligent scheduling includes a strategy that leverages scheduling heuristics learned from many of the world’s best human schedulers, including those involved in submarine scheduling, in order to solve complex scheduling challenges in reasonable amounts of time (minutes).

The goal of scheduling is to optimize the synchronization of resources and other constraints to minimize the duration of the project. For submarine production and maintenance, resources include human resources, equipment resources, and physical-space resources. This paper reviews some of the literature on this topic showing different techniques and results showing the major difference in schedule duration due to the scheduling engine. Real-world experience from EB is provided to further illustrate the real-world impact, and lessons learned. Thus, without adding one extra resource, submarines are being produced by EB more rapidly just by utilizing better scheduling technology.

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